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Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)

  • Pricing models
    • On-Demand: fixed-rate by hour or second, no commitments
    • Spot: bid on spare compute for up to 90% off On-Demand prices, can be interrupted
    • Reserved: capacity reservation for one to three year term providing up to 75% off On-Demand prices
    • Dedicated Hosts: physical server dedicated to you, useful for server-bound licenses, purchased On-Demand or Reserved
    • Comparision site
  • Instance Store volumes are ephemeral, they can be restarted, but cannot be stopped, will lose data if the underlying host fails, and cannot be kept after termination. Prefer EBS.
  • Security Groups
    • By default, all inbound traffic is blocked and all outbound traffic is allowed
    • They are stateful, if you send a request from your instance, response traffic for request is allowed regardless of inbound rules. Similarly, responses to allowed inbound traffic are allowed to flow out, regardless of outbound rules.
    • Only support allow rules, not deny
  • Instance metadata available at http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/ and user data at http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data/
  • Placement Groups
    • Clustered: low latency and high throughput networking, each is in close proximity in the same AZ
    • Spread: individual critical instances, each is on separate racks and can be multi-AZ
    • Partitioned: large distributed and replicated workloads with multiple instances, each partition is on separate racks and can be multi-AZ
  • Networking
    • Elastic Network Interface (ENI) for basic networking
    • Enhanced Network Adapter (ENA) for speeds between 10 and 100 Gbps
    • Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA) for high-performance computing (HPC), machine learning (ML), or OS bypass

Elastic Block Store (EBS)

  • By default, root volumes are deleted when the instance is terminated but additional volumes are not
  • Always in the same availability zone (AZ) as the running instance
  • Volume Types
    • SSD
      • General Purpose (gp2), balances price and performance, max 16,000 IOPS
      • Provisioned IOPS (io1), high performance designed for databases
    • HDD
      • Throughput Optimized (st1), frequently accessed big data, data warehouses, and log processing
      • Cold (sc1), lowest cost for less frequency accessed data
  • Snapshots
    • Preferably taken on stopped instances, but not required
    • Stored on S3 and incremental, only blocks changed since last snapshot are saved
    • Automatically encrypted if volume is encrypted
    • Can only share snapshots with other accounts or make public if unencrypted
  • To move a volume from one AZ or Region to another
    1. Create a snapshot
    2. If unencrypted, optionally copy snapshot as encrypted
    3. Create an AMI from the snapshot
    4. If moving to a new region, copy AMI to desired region
    5. Use the AMI to launch an instance in desired AZ

Elastic Load Balancer (ELB)

  • Use to distribute traffic across multiple targets in a single and across multiple AZs (if enabled)
  • To use in a VPC, need a minimum of two public subnets
  • 504 means there’s likely an issue with your application
  • Instance health checks are shown as either InService or OutOfService
  • Get client IP using X-Forwarded-For header
  • Types
    • Application Load Balancer (ALB)
      • Layer 7, allowing for things like path-based traffic routing
      • Preferred for most applications
      • Given DNS name, not IP
    • Network Load Balancer (NLB)
      • Layer 4
      • High performance
      • Can assign a static IP
    • Classic Load Balancer
      • Lower cost, legacy solution
      • Given DNS name, not IP

Rocky Warren

Rocky Warren's blog. Principal Architect, Tech Lead, Product Manager. I do other stuff too.

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